Electroslag Welding 电渣焊

Electroslag welding is a non-traditional welding process in which molten metal pool is created. This method is combination of both arc welding and resistance welding because at starting, heat is generated by establishes an arc between electrode and base metal (as in arc welding). This heat leads to melt flux and create a molten metal pool between the electrode and base metal. Now the current flow through this molten metal pool and heat is developed due to electric resistance (as in resistance welding). Due to this reason, this is called combination of arc welding and resistance welding.
电渣焊是一种非传统的焊接工艺,其中产生熔融金属池。该方法是电弧焊和电阻焊的组合,因为在启动时,通过在电极和基底金属之间建立电弧(如在电弧焊中)产生热量。该热量导致熔体流动并在电极和基底金属之间产生熔融金属池。现在流过该熔融金属池的电流和热量由于电阻而产生(如在电阻焊接中)。由于这个原因,这被称为电弧焊和电阻焊的组合。

Electrosalg welding is an uphill welding process. Uphill welding process is a process in which weld joints are made in vertical direction and the plates to be weld held vertically. This welding is done both in single pass and multipass. Before discussing its working we should learn about the principle of electroslag welding machine.
电渣焊是一种上坡焊接工艺。上坡焊接工艺是指在垂直方向上焊接接头,在垂直方向上焊接板的工艺。这种焊接可在单道焊和多道焊中进行。在讨论电渣焊机的工作原理之前,我们应该先了解一下电渣焊机的工作原理。

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1 Principle 原理

It works on common principle of heat generation due to arc and electric resistance. At the starting, arc is produce between welding electrode and base metal which tends to melt filler metal. This filler metal will fill the cavity at some extent. Now the current passes through this extended surface and heat generate due to electric resistance. This heat further tends to melt filler metal which is continuously fed from the roller. Filler wire is fed through the roller continuously. This wire fed through a tube witch direct its flow. This filler wire melts and fills the weld and made a strong joint.
它的工作原理是由于电弧和电阻产生的热量。在开始时,焊接电极和基底金属之间产生电弧,这倾向于熔化填充金属。这种填充金属将在某种程度上填充空腔。现在电流通过这个扩展的表面并且由于电阻而产生热量。这种热量进一步趋向于熔化从辊子连续进给的填充金属。填料丝连续地通过辊子。这根电线通过管子引导其流动。这种填充焊丝熔化并填充焊缝并形成牢固的连接。

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2 Working 工作

As we know, electroslag welding is an uphill welding process so the plates to be weld held vertically at some distance. The weld metal or filler metal deposit between the cavities formed between the plates by melting electrodes using heat develop by flow of current. This filler metal forms metal pool which solidified into the weld cavity so a strong joint is created between the plates. Electroslag welding works as follow:
众所周知,电渣焊是一种上坡焊接工艺,因此板件要在一定距离内垂直焊接。焊接金属或填充金属在极板之间通过熔化电极形成的空穴,通过电流流动产生的热量沉积。这种填充金属形成金属池,凝固成焊接腔,因此板与板之间形成了牢固的连接。电渣焊接的工作原理如下:

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  • First current is flow between welding electrode and base plate. This establishes an arc between electrode and base plate which heat the flux or filler wire. This heat leads to melt the filler metal and deposits into the weld cavity.
    首先电流是在焊接电极和基板之间的流动。 这在电极和基板之间建立了电弧,由其加热焊剂或填充焊丝。该热量导致填充金属熔化并沉积到焊接腔中。
  • Now the cooled copper shoe comes into action and start solidified this filler metal into weld cavity. This will made to avoid flowing out the weld metal.
    现在冷却的铜屑开始工作,并开始固化这种填充金属进入焊接腔。这将避免焊接金属流出。
  • As the filler metal solidified into weld cavity, the current flow through it. It will generate heat due to electric resistance. This heat is further use to continuous melting down the filler metal into weld Cavity.
    当填充金属凝固成焊接腔时,电流通过它。由于电阻,它会产生热量。这种热量进一步以继续熔化填充金属到焊缝腔
  • The filler metal continuously provide through roller arrangement.
    填料金属通过滚轮排列连续提供
  • During welding both the copper shoe and feed mechanism moving upward unlit the whole cavity is formed.
    在焊接过程中,铜屑和进给机构向上运动而不发光,形成了整个腔体
  • This will create a strong joint in single pass. The single or multi-pass weld is used according to plate thickness.
    这将在单程中形成强大的连接。根据板厚度使用单程或多程焊接。

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3 Application 应用

It is used in heavy industries where plate thickness up to 80mm to be joint. This process is used to joint large casting and forging to produce very large and composite structure. Welding of thick walled large diameter pipes, pressure vessels, storage tanks and ships etc.
适用于厚度达80mm的重工业。该工艺用于连接大型铸造和锻造,以生产非常大的复合结构。焊接厚壁大口径管道,压力容器,储罐和船舶等。

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4 Advantages and Disadvantages 优点与缺点

4.1 Advantages 优点

  • Cooling rate is very low so there is no problem of cold cracking.
    冷却速度非常低,因此不存在冷裂问题
  • There is no problem of slag inclusion or porosity in electroslag welding.
    在电渣焊中没有夹渣或孔隙的问题
  • The process is semi-automatic and faster.
    该工艺是半自动且更快的
  • Heavier section can be welded in single pass.
    较重的部分可以单次焊接
  • High productivity can be achieved.
    可以实现高生产率
  • Low cost for joint preparation.
    焊接成本低

4.2 Disadvantages 缺点

  • Too high heat input to base.
    基极输入热量过高
  • High temperature of welding needs cooling arrangement.
    焊接温度高,需要冷却装置
  • Slow rate of cooling give columnar grain in weld.
    冷却速度慢,焊缝呈柱状晶粒
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