Ultrasonic Welding 超声波焊接

we will learn about ultrasonic welding principle, working, equipment’s application, advantages and disadvantages with its diagram. Ultrasonic welding is a welding process in which ultrasonic waves or vibrations are used to generate heat for welding. Ultrasonic means those vibration waves which have frequency above the normal hearing range. It is about 20000 to 30000 Hz. It is a solid state welding process. Solid state welding is a welding process in which no external heat is added for welding.
我们将学习超声波焊接原理,工作原理,设备的应用,优点和缺点与它的图表。超声波焊接是利用超声波或振动产生焊接热的焊接工艺。超声波是指频率高于正常听力范围的振动波。它大约是20000到30000赫兹。这是一个固态焊接过程。固态焊接是一种不需要外加热量进行焊接的焊接工艺。

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1 Principle 原理

It works on the basic principle of energy of ultrasonic wave. Ultrasonic vibration creates a dynamic shear stress between the contacts of two work piece. Due to local plastic deformation and heat generate due to friction between contact surfaces, joint formation will take place at the interface.
它的工作原理是超声波能量的基本原理。超声波振动在两个工件的触点之间产生动态剪切应力。由于局部塑性变形和由于接触表面之间的摩擦而产生的热量,将在界面处形成接头。

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2 Equipment 设备

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2.1 Power Supply 电源

The ultrasonic welding needs high frequency and high voltage power supply. This power is needed by the transducer to generate vibrations.
超声波焊接需要高频和高压电源。换能器需要这种功率来产生振动。

2.2 Transducer 换能器

Transducer is a device which can convert high frequency electric signal into high frequency mechanical vibration. This is connected with the welding head. The converter or piezoelectric transducer used in this welding process.
换能器是将高频电信号转换为高频机械振动的装置。这是连接到焊接头。焊接过程中使用的转换器或压电换能器。

2.3 Booster and Horn 助推器和喇叭

The mechanical vibration created by the transducer is supplied to the booster which amplifies this vibration and supply to the horn. Horn is a device which supply this amplified vibration to the welding plates.
换能器产生的机械振动提供给助推器,助推器放大这种振动并提供给喇叭。喇叭是一种设备,提供这种放大振动焊接板。

2.4 Fixture or clamping devices 夹具或夹紧装置

This device is essential in the ultrasonic welding. This uses either electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic or mechanical energy to hold the plates into desire location.
这种装置在超声波焊接中是必不可少的。这使用电力,液压,气动或机械能来保持板到所需的位置。

3 Working 工作

Now we know the basic concept of ultrasonic welding. This welding works as follow.
现在我们知道了超声波焊接的基本概念。这种焊接方法如下。

  • At the start, high frequency current passes through a piezoelectric transducer. This transducer converts high frequency electrical signal into mechanical vibration.
    在开始时,高频电流通过压电传感器。该传感器将高频电信号转换为机械振动。
  • This vibration further supplied to the booster which amplify its frequency.
    这种振动进一步提供给助推器,以扩大其频率。
  • The amplified high frequency vibration passes through horn which is in contact with welding plate.
    放大的高频振动通过与焊接板接触的喇叭。
  • This welding creates lap joint. One plant of the weld is fixed into fixture and other one is in direct contact with horn. These plates are fixed under moderate pressure force.
    这种焊接产生搭接。焊接的一个装置固定在夹具上,另一个装置与焊角直接接触。这些板是在中等压力下固定的
  • The horn supply high frequency mechanical vibration to the welding plate.
    喇叭为焊接板提供高频机械振动
  • Due to this vibration, oscillation shear force act at the interface between welding plates which result elestoplastic deformation at interface.
    由于这种振动,焊接板之间的界面受剪切力的振荡作用,导致界面处产生塑性变形。
  • It also create a localize temperature rise due to mechanical force and friction. This heat helps in plastic deformation at interface and makes a strong joint without melting of work piece or using filler metal.
    由于机械力和摩擦力,它还会造成局部温升。这种热量有助于界面的塑性变形,使坚固的接头不熔化工件或使用填充金属。

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4 Applications 应用

  • This welding is used in fabrication of nuclear reactor components.
    这种焊接用于制造核反应堆部件
  • It is used in automotive industry for key, head lamp parts, button and switches etc.
    适用于汽车钥匙、头灯零件、按钮、开关等
  • Ultrasonic is used in electronic industries like armature winding, switches etc.
    超声波广泛应用于电枢绕组、开关等电子行业。
  • This is clean welding process so it is used in medical industries to make parts like filters, masks etc.
    这是一种清洁的焊接工艺,用于医疗行业制造过滤器、口罩等零件。

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5 Advantages and Disadvantages 优点与缺点

5.1 Advantages 优点

  • This welding can be easily automated and fast.
    这种焊接可以很容易地自动化和快速
  • This produces high strength joint without applying external heat.
    能产生了高强度的接头,而不需要施加外部热量
  • This is clean and provides good surface finish after welding.
    干净并提供良好的表面光洁度焊接
  • Ultrasonic process used to weld wide variety of dissimilar metal.
    超声波焊接工艺用于焊接各种异类金属。
  • It does not develop high heat so there is no chance of expel molten metal form joint.
    它不产生高热量,所以不可能排出熔融金属产生接头。

5.2 Disadvantages 缺点

  • It does not weld thick harder metal. The thickness of welds about 2.5 mm for aluminum.
    它不焊接较厚较硬的金属,铝的焊缝厚度约为2.5毫米。
  • Tooling cost for fixture is high and they also need special design.
    夹具的加工成本高,还需要特殊的设计。
  • The vibration generates through transducer, can damage electronic component.
    振动通过换能器产生,会损坏电子元件。