Friction Stir Welding (FSW) 搅拌摩擦焊

Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process. It is commonly a type of friction welding but due to its versatile applications, it is considered as a separate welding process. In this type of welding process, no external heat is supplied and the joint formation takes place due to diffusion at interface surfaces under high pressure and friction force. In this process, no molten or plastic state involves so it is categorized into solid state welding process.
搅拌摩擦焊(FSW)是一种固态焊接工艺。它通常是摩擦焊接的一种,但是由于其用途广泛,被认为是单独的焊接工艺。在这种焊接工艺中,由于界面在高压和摩擦力的作用下发生扩散,不提供外部热量,从而形成接头。在此工艺中,不涉及熔融或塑性状态,因此将其归类为固态焊接工艺。
Slide1.JPG

1 Principle 原理

Friction stir welding works on same principle of friction welding. In this process, friction is used to generate heat at interface surface. This heat starts diffusion process at the mating surface. A high pressure force applied at these mating surfaces which accelerates metal diffusion process and form a metal to metal joint. This is basic principle of friction welding. In friction stir welding, a rotating tool is used to applied friction and pressure force at the plates. This tool rotates at its own axis and move longitudinally at the plates interface which generates heat by friction between rotating tool and work piece. This heat deformed the interface surface and diffuses the two piece of work piece into one another by applying a high pressure force. This joint is created due to thermo mechanical treatment at the interface surface. One big advantage which makes it versatile welding process is that, it can be easily automated and gives higher metal joining rate. It is mostly used to join aluminum alloy.
搅拌摩擦焊的工作原理与摩擦焊相同。在此工艺中,摩擦力被用于在界面表面产生热量。该热量在结合面开始扩散。在这些配合表面上施加的高压力会加速金属扩散过程并形成金属与金属的接合点。这是摩擦焊接的基本原理。在搅拌摩擦焊中,使用旋转工具在板上施加摩擦力和压力。该工具在其自转轴上旋转并在板界面处纵向移动,通过旋转工具与工件之间的摩擦产生热量。这种热量使界面表面变形,并通过施加高压使两块工件相互扩散。这个接头是由于界面表面的热机械处理而产生的。使它成为通用焊接工艺的一大优势是,它可以轻松实现自动化并提高金属接合速率。它主要用于连接铝合金。
Slide2.JPG

2 Working 工作

The working process of friction stir welding can be summarized as follow.
搅拌摩擦焊接的工作过程可以概括为:

  • First both the work plates are clamped together same as in butt joint. These both plate’s weldable surfaces are in contact with one another.
    首先,两个工作板像对接接头一样被夹在一起。这两个板的可焊表面相互接触
  • Now a rotating tool pin is inserted into work pieces at the interface surfaces until tool shoulder touched the work piece. This will deform the material plastically due to heating by friction force. This is state of the joining process in which, inter molecular diffusion will deform the material plastically due to heating by friction force.
    现在一个旋转的工具销被插入工件的界面表面,直到工具肩接触到工件。由于摩擦力的加热,这将使材料塑性变形。这是连接工艺的一种状态,在这个过程中,分子间的扩散会由于摩擦力的加热而使材料塑性变形。
  • Now the rotating tool is move forward along the joint line. This will form a joint behind the tool.
    现在旋转工具沿着连接线向前移动。这将在工具后面形成一个接头。
  • The tool continuously move unlit the whole weld is form. After the joining process, tool is separated from the work piece. The hole created by tool pin remains in the welding plates.
    工具连续移动直至整个焊缝成形。连接工艺完成后,工具与工件分离。工具销产生的孔保留在焊接板上。

3 Application 应用

  • FSW is mostly used in aircraft industries for welding wings, fuel tanks, aircraft structure etc.
    FSW主要用于飞机工业中,用于机翼,油箱,飞机结构等的焊接
  • Used in marine industries for structure work.
    用于海洋工业的结构工程
  • Used in automotive industries to weld wheel rims, chassis, fuel tanks and other structure work.
    用于汽车工业车轮轮辋、底盘、油箱等结构件的焊接
  • It is used in chemical industries for joining pipelines, heat exchanger, air conditioner etc.
    用于化工管道、换热器、空调等的连接。
  • Friction stir welding is also used in electronic industries for joining bus bar, aluminum to copper, connectors and other electronic equipment’s.
    搅拌摩擦焊还用于电子工业中连接母线、铝与铜、连接器和其他电子设备。
  • It is widely used in fabrication industries.
    它广泛应用于制造业

Slide3.JPG

4 Advabtages and Disadvantages 优点与缺点

4.1 Advantages 优点

  • It is a solid state welding so does not use flux, filler metal etc.
    它是一种固态焊接,所以不使用焊剂,填充金属等
  • FSW can be used to weld both similar and dissimilar metals.
    FSW可用于焊接相同和不同的金属
  • Fine grain size and quality weld can be obtain by this process.
    通过此工艺可以获得细小晶粒和高质量的焊缝
  • Lower power consumption due to absence of external heating.
    由于没有外部加热,降低了功耗
  • Highly automated.
    高度自动化
  • Little maintenance required.
    几乎不需要维护
  • Large welding joint design available and it can weld in all direction.
    提供大型焊接接头设计,可全方位焊接
  • Easy to operate and does not involve any environmental pollution.
    易于操作,不涉及任何环境污染

4.2 Disadvantages 缺点

  • Complicated or special fixture arrangement required.
    需要复杂或特殊的夹具布置
  • It creates a visible hole in welding plates.
    它会在焊接板上形成可见的孔
  • High initial or setup cost.
    初始或设置成本高
  • It is less flexible compare to arc welding process.
    与弧焊工艺相比,它的灵活性较差
  • FSW cannot make filler joints.
    FSW无法制作填充接头
  • Non Forgeable material cannot be weld.
    不可锻材料不能焊接
文章目录